H105, American History I

Lecture 1:  European Invasion of the Americas and a New Atlantic World

I.  Reinventing places — the new cartography of an Atlantic world
II.  Reinventing peoples — the new ethnography of “other” and of “self”

8th-15th centuries From Constricted to Expansionist Europe
711-1492 Moors from northern Africa occupied Spain
1291 Mamelukes (Egypt) expelled Europeans from Middle East
1291 Genoa (Italy) sponsored Vivaldi brothers to circumnavigate Africa; they disappeared
1415 Portugal conquered Ceuta, across Mediterranean Sea in northern Africa
1434-1460 Prince Henry (Portugal) sponsored exploration of west African coast
1453 Ottomans conquered Constantinople
1465-1479 Ottomans defeated Venice in naval war
1492 Spain expelled Moors; Columbus “discovered” “America” (did not reach Asia)
1493 Pope Alexander VI divided entire world between Portugal and Spain
1497-1499 Vasco da Gama (Portugal) circumnavigated Africa to Asia
1519 Spanish invasion and conquest of Aztecs in Mexico
1531 Spanish invasion and conquest of Incas in Peru
1586-1590 “Lost Colony” briefly established by England at Roanoke

1459-1570 Europe’s Changing European Map of the World
1459 Fra Mauro
1489 Henricus Martellus
1502 Alberto Cantino
1507-1508 Johann Ruysch
1536 Oronce Fine
1569 Gerard Mercator
1544 Sebastian Munster
1570 Abraham Ortelius

1478-1705 Europe’s Changing Image of Self and Other
1480 “wild man” on tapestry
1490 Hieronymous Bosch, Christ Carrying the Cross
1478 edition Konrad von Megenberg, Das Buch der Natur
1599 Levinus Hulsius, The Accounts of Raleigh’s Search for El Dorado
1590 Theodore de Bry, “Picte I” and “Picte II”
1493 Christopher Columbus, report
1705; 1744 edition John Harris, Voyages and Travels
1585 John White watercolors
1590 Theodore De Bry engravings