H105, American History I

Lecture 4:  From White Servitude to Black Slavery in the Chesapeake

I.  Life history of a servant
II.  From the revision of white servitude to the invention of black slavery
III.  Capitalism and the infrastructure of slavery; law and the invention of whiteness

13th-16th century Evolution of Slavery Alongside Expansion of Europe
13th-15th century Genoa and Venice in Eastern Europe and Middle East
15th century Portugal in Africa and Atlantic islands
16th century Spain in Central and South America
16th century Dutch in Africa and Brazil
16th century English in Africa and Caribbean and North America

1640s-1690s From White Servitude to Black Slavery in English Colonies
1640s Barbados (sugar production)
1680s Virginia (tobacco production)
1690s South Carolina (rice production)

17th century Economic Calculations
before 1660 economic depression in England high mortality (death rate) in Chesapeake servants were cheap, low-risk investment slaves were expensive, high-risk investment
after 1660 economic recovery in England lower mortality in Chesapeake servants were less available, and more expensive slaves became more available, and less expensive

1482-1789 Early Modern Images of Slavery
built 1482; image 1668 Elmina Castle, Gold Coast, Ghana
1789 plan of Liverpool slave ship, Brookes
1654 Frans Post, Nederzetting in Brazilie
1665 Charles de Rochefort, Historie Naturalle et morale des iles Antilles de l’Amerique
1641 portraits of West African diplomat and Dutch merchant