H105, American History I

Lecture 14:  Citizenship in the Early Republic — Creating New Women, Creating New Men

I.  The Haitian Revolution and the racial bounds of freedom
II.  Female suffrage in New Jersey and the boundaries of citizenship
III.  Virtue versus interest — the redefinition of social worth and political leadership

1796-1826 National Iconography
1796 Edward Savage, “Liberty”
1796 Gilbert Stuart, portrait of George Washington
1726 John Neagle, “Patrick Lyon at his Forge”

1776-1807 Suffrage in New Jersey
1776 “every person” (with property worth 50 pounds or more)
1806 election tainted by fraud and violence by middle-class white men
1807 “free, white, male, citizens” (without any property requirement)

1789-1971 Suffrage Reform in the United States
1789 property-holding white men could vote
1843 Rhode Island was last state to ban property restrictions on male suffrage:  universal white male suffrage
1870 black men could vote
1920 women could vote
1971 18-year-olds could vote

1749-1796.... Life of Matthew Lyon
1749 born in Ireland
1764 immigrated to Connecticut as servant in meat store
1772 bought farm
1774-1783 moved to Vermont and served in revolutionary army and government
1783-1790 built mills and factories to grind grain, saw wood, make nails, forge iron, print paper
1793 published newspaper “The Farmer’s Library” (slogan:  “The Freedom of the people cannot be supported without knowledge and industry.”)
1790 90 newspapers in United States
1800 230 newspapers
1790-1794 lost three elections for Congress
1796 won election

1798-1800 Matthew Lyon and Political Congroversy
Jan. 30, 1798 spat in Roger Griswold’s face, on floor of Congress
Feb. 15, 1798 was beaten with cane by Roger Griswold, on floor of Congress
1798 published newspaper “The Scourge of Aristocracy”
1798 arrested under new Sedition Act for criticizing President John Adams; won re-election from prison
1800 Thomas Jefferson defeated John Adams in presidential election — “Revolution of 1800”