H105, American History I

Lecture 17:  Transition to Democracy — Male Voting and Male Violence

I.  From “republic” to “democracy” — the rise of universal white male suffrage
II.  Tocqueville and the cultural problem of equality
III.  Myth of the self-made man and the cultural problem of masculine failure

1790-1843 Expansion of White Male Suffrage
1790 Vermont was first state legislature to ban property restrictions on male voting
1843 Rhode Island was last state legislature to ban property restrictions on male voting
1790s-1830s expansion of white male suffrage
alongside curtailment of free black male suffrage
1776 “All men are created equal”
1843 All (white) men are created equal

From Republic to Democracy
republic premised on property ownership
premium on personal independence
democracy premised on universal white male suffrage
premium on social equality

1820s-1830s middle-class respectability
ca. 1825 Colonel and Mrs. Little, Ulster County NY, by Ammi Phillips
1829 George and Abigail Reynolds, Amenia NY, by Ammi Phillips
ca. 1835 Mr. and Mrs. Day, Hudson River valley NY, by Ammi Phillips
1839 Moore family, western Massachusetts, by Erastus Field

1824-1828 Presidential Elections
1824 presidential election

John Quincy Adams defeated Andrew Jackson

AJ 42% of popular vote, but not enough electoral votes to win
JQA 32% of popular vote
Henry Clay 13%; William Crawford 13%

Henry Clay supported JQA instead of AJ
House of Representatives elected JQA
Henry Clay became secretary of state
1828 presidential election

Andrew Jackson (56%) defeated John Quincy Adams (44%)

“spoils system” — systematic replacement of federal office-holders

1830s-1850s — “second party system” — origin of modern American party politics (not yet of modern American parties)

1804-1828 Andrew Jackson
1804 Andrew Jackson homestead
1821 Andrew Jackson homestead, “The Hermitage”
1828 Robert Cruikshank, “All Creation Going to the White House” (Jackson’s inauguration)

1775-1805 Abel Clemmens
1775 born in New Jersey
1790 moved to Pennsylvania
1794 moved to Virginia, and married; wage laborer, farm renter, 8 children
1805 tried to move from Virginia to Ohio, but....

Boxing as Entertainment
September 13, 1842 Christopher Lilly versus Thomas McCoy
(Hastings, New York)
119 rounds, until McCoy died