H105, American History I

Lecture 19:  Perfectionism — Religious Revival and Social Reform

I.  Reactions to social change, and the transatlantic rise of evangelical religion
II.  From personal conversion to social reform
III.  Disciplining the mind; disciplining the body

1827-1844 Rise of New Denominations Appealing to Lower Class in United States (and England):
1827 Mormons — Joseph Smith had angelic vision (evolved into Church of Jesus Christ Latter-Day Saints)
October 22, 1844 Millerites — William Miller predicted world would end on this day (evolved into Seventh-Day Adventists)
1821-1835 Rise of Protestant Evangelicalism Appealing to Middle Class:
1821 Charles Grandison Finney abandoned career as lawyer in western New York to become evangelical Presbyterian preacher
1835 Lectures on the Revival of Religion — “God has made man a free moral agent.”

1829-1844 Rise of Social Reform
1829 Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia PA
1854 Indianapolis Hospital for the Insane

1847-1848 Rise of Atheneum Movement
1847 Nantucket Atheneum
1848 An Illustrated History of the Hat

social reform institutions
edifying entertainment (not escapism) at atheneums
utopian communities (e.g., New Harmony, Indiana)

1771-1858 Robert Owen
age 10 began to work in textile workshop in northern England
age 16 began to work in textile mill in northern England
1793 joined Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society
1799 with partners, bought textile mill in Scotland; modernized technology; reduced working hours; built schools
1813 published “The Formation of Character”
1814 published “A New View of Society”
1825 bought Harmony, Indiana, for new utopian community
1828 sold New Harmony to his sons, and returned to England
1834 established Grand National Consolidated Trade Union in England (to unify separate trade unions)

1834-1856 Discipline and Health
1844 plumbing advertisement
1837 Sylvester Graham, A Treatise on Bread, and Bread-Making
1834 Sylvester Graham, A Lecture to Young Men, on Chastity
1838 Leopold Deslandes, A Treatise on the Diseases Produced by Onanism
1856 Catherine Beecher, Physiology and Calisthenics for Schools and Families

1837-1840s Invention of Public Schooling
1837 Horace Mann became head of Massachusetts Board of Education
1838 Horace Mann pioneered public schools
1840s public schools systematized in Massachusetts and began to spread beyond Massachusetts