H105, American History I

Lecture 20:  Abolitionism — Politics of Race and Politics of Gender

I.  Cultural atmosphere of change; cultural quest for stability
II.  From colonization to abolitionism
III.  Women’s activism and women’s rights — from morality to politics

1780-1831 From Colonization to Abolitionism
1780 gradual emancipation in Pennsylvania
1816 American Colonization Society (1816-1830 — 1,400 freed slaves sent to Liberia)
1830 David Walker, Appeal to the Coloured Citizens (black abolitionism)
1831 William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator (white abolitionism)
1831 Nat Turner’s Rebellion (led to harsher slave codes in South)

1831-1837 Spread of Abolitionism
1831 The Liberator
1833 American Anti-Slavery Society — “We shall organize Anti-Slavery Societies, if possible, in every city, town and village in our land.”
1835 225 chapters
1837 1,600 chapters

1830s-1840s Abolitionist Popular Culture
1843 abolitionist almanac
1836 children’s book, The Slave”s Friend
1830s William Lloyd Garrison, song, Human Equality

1830s Anti-Abolitionist Backlash
1837 anti-abolitionist poster
1836 Edward Clay, Practical Amalgamation
1830s William Lloyd Garrison, song, Human Equality
1830s anti-abolitionist rhetoric:
“amalgamation” — mixing of blacks and whites
“promiscuity&rquo; — mixing of men and women

1830s Anti-Abolitionist Violence (North and South)
1835 Charleston SC mob raided post office and abolitionist pamphlets
1835 Boston MA mob beat up William Lloyd Garrison
1837 Alton IL mob killed editor Elijah Lovejoy

1830s Women’s Participation in Abolitionism
1830s women’s auxiliaries to men’s anti-slavery societies
1833 Prudence Crandall (white schoolteacher of black children in Canterbury, Connecticut) was outlawed by state legislature and jailed; then 1834 she reopened school and was attacked by white mob
1836 Congress imposed “gag rule” — no more anti-slavery petitions
1837 Grimke sisters (South Carolina slaveholding family) began anti-slavery lecture tour
1838 Grimke sisters lectured to Massachusetts state legislature — first public speech by women in United States
1837 Grimke sisters (South Carolina slaveholding family) began anti-slavery lecture tour
1838 male mob burned Philadelphia Hall for Free Discussion, where Grimke sisters were scheduled to speak
1840 “moderate” abolitionists (opposed to participation of women) split off to form Liberty Party (men only)
1838 Grimke sisters began to lecture about women’s obligation to participate in social reform
1848 Seneca Falls Convention began to work for women’s right to vote — “We hold these truths to be self-evident:  that all men and women are created equal.”
1920 72 years later, women win right to vote