H105, American History I

Lecture 21:  Slavery in the American South — White Perspectives

I.  Racial calculus and the pricing and selling of human beings
II.  Pro-slavery arguments and the manufacturing of southern virtue
III.  Racial calculus and competing images of “white slavery”

1790 Slave Population Around Time of U.S. Constitution
whites 3.2 million
blacks 0.8 million
1788-1808 250,000 slaves imported from Africa to United States

1800-1860 Demographic Growth of United States

total population of United States (in millions)
1800 5.3
1830 12.9
1860 31.4

total white population of United States (in millions)
1800 4.3
1830 10.6
1860 26.9

total enslaved black population of United States (in millions)
1800 0.9
1830 2.0
1860 4.0

total free black population of United States (in millions)
1800 0.1
1830 0.3
1860 0.5

1850s-1860s Images of Selling and Buying of Slaves (i.e., Human Beings)
1856 Illustrated London News
c.1859 Lefevre James Cranstone, “Slave Auction, Virginia”
1850s New Orleans slave auctions
1864 photograph of store in Atlanta, Georgia

1830-1857 Southern Pro-Slavery Texts
1787 Samuel Smith, Essay on the Causes of the Variety of Complexion and Figure in the Human Species
1830 Charles Caldwell, Thoughts on the Original Unity of the Human Race
1842 Josiah Nott, The Mulatto a Hybrid — Probable Extermination of the Two if the Whites and Blacks are Allowed to Intermarry
1845 Josiah Nott, Two Lectures on the Natural History of the Caucasion and Negro Races
1850 Thornton Stringfellow, A Brief Examination of Scripture Testimony on the Institution of Slavery
1854 Josiah Nott, Types of Mankind
1857 George Fitzhugh, Cannibals All!

early-mid 19th century Romanticized Southern Images of Slavery
c. early 19th century “The Plantation”
1855 Edward Beyer, “Bellevue, The Lewis Homestead, Salem, Virginia”

1830s-1840s Religious Schism Along Sectional Lines (South Pro-Slavery; North Anti-Slavery)
1837 Presbyterian church
1844 Methodist church
1845 Baptist church

1850s-1860s Northern Images of Slavery
1860s “Emancipated Slaves”
1853 Eyre Crowe, “Slaves Going South after being Sold at Richmond”