H105, American History I

Lecture 22:  Slavery in the American South — Black Perspectives

I.  Continuing contests over American national identity — inclusion versus exclusion
II.  Middle-class blacks, the quest for respectability, and the fight against slavery
III.  Enslaved blacks’ protest versus whites’ coercive power

1790s-1830s Institution-Building by Middle-Class Free Blacks in North
1790s growth of schools, churches, charities
1820s growth of print culture and reform organizations
1827 “reedom’s Journal” (first black-owned newspaper, in New York City)
1830 David Walker, Appeal To the Coloured Citizens of the World
1830 American Society of Free Persons of Color (first black men’s anti-colonization society, in Philadelphia)
1832 Salem, Mass. Female Anti-Slavery Society (first black women’s abolitionist society, in Salem, Massachusetts)

1790s-1830s Revisions of “Black” Identity
1790s free black organizations used “African” in their names
1820s white colonization movement — send free blacks “back” to Africa
1830s free black organizations used “Colored” in their names

1787-1863 History of End of Slavery
1787 English colonizationists created Sierre Leone for freed slaves
1804 Haitian independence against France (first black republic in “New World”)
1807 England abolished slave trade
1808 United States abolished slave trade
1820s former Spanish independent republics abolished slavery:  Chile (1823), Mexico (1826), Bolivia (1827)
1822 American colonizationists created Liberia for freed slaves
1833 American Anti-Slavery Society founded (beginning of nationally organized white abolitionism)
1833 England abolished slavery
1850s more former Spanish republics abolished slavery:  Colombia (1851), Argentina (1853), Venezuela (1854), Peru (1855)
1863 United States abolished slavery

Photographic Record of Plantation South
plantation and slave quarters, Berkeley County SC
slave quarters, Chatham County GA
“big house,” Baltimore County MD