H105, American History I

Lecture 23:  Westward Expansion — From Gold Rush in Georgia to Gold Rush in California

I.  Nationalistic visions of hemisphere and continent — Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny
II.  Cherokee renaissance, Gold Rush in Georgia, and Cherokee Removal
III.  War with Mexico; Gold Rush in California — from “white” nation to global nation

Vision of Continent
1803 Louisiana Purchase
1804-1806 Lewis and Clark expedition
Vision of Hemisphere
1823 Monroe Doctrine

1850s-1860s Images of Technological Progress
c.1856 George Inness, “The Lackawanna Valley [PA]”
c.1867 Alexander Gardner, “View Near Fort Harker, Kansas”
May 10, 1869 A.J. Russell, “The Driving of the Golden Spike, Promontory UT”
1869 Alfred Hart, “One Era Gives Way to Another”
1868 Currier and Ives, “Westward the Course of Empire”
1853 Asher Durand, “Progress”

1850s-1860s From Pastoral to Sublime
1857 Frederic Church, “Niagara Falls”
1859 Frederic Church, “Heart of the Andes”
1863 Albert Bierstadt, “Rocky Mountains”
1867 Albert Bierstadt, “Emigrants Crossing the Plains”

1850s Early Visions of American Imperialism
1850-1852 William Herndon to South America
1853-1855 Thomas Page to South America
1852-1854 Matthew Perry to Japan

1820s-1860s Western Explorers
1822-1831 Jedidiah Smith (fur trade to Utah, Nevada, and California)
1869 John Wesley Powell, The Canyons of the Colorado
1870 John Wesley Powell

1830s-1840s Contrasting Styles of Male Leadership
1844 George Catlin, Chief White Cloud (Iowa)
Chief John Ross
President Andrew Jackson
1833 Joseph Vann mansion, Springplace GA

1790-1839 History of Cherokees and “Indian Removal”
1790 Indian Trade and Intercourse Act — sanctioning treaties by federal government only
1808 Cherokees develop written law
1820 Cherokees create legislature
1827 Cherokees ratify constitution based on U.S. Constitution
1829 gold rush in Georgia
1830 Georgia legislature abolished Cherokee constitution and legislature
1830 Indian Removal Act passed by Congress
1832 U.S. Supreme Court upheld law and favored Cherokee rather than Georgia sovereignty; but not enforced by executive branch
1835 minority Cherokee party made treaty with U.S. government
1838-1839 Trail of Tears from Georgia to Oklahoma (approx. 50% died)

1810s-1850s Imperialism of Southern Slavery
1817 Andrew Jackson conquered Florida; 1819 treaty with Spain
1819-1821 Mexican War of Independence against Spain; American “filibusters” began to invade “Texas”
1845 American settlers in “Texas” rebelled against Mexican rule
1845 United States government annexed “Texas”
1846-1848 war between United States and Mexico
1847 American government tried to buy Cuba from Spain
1848-1851 American “filibusters” tried to invade Cuba
1849 American “filibusters” tried to invade Yucatan
1854-1855 William Walker tried to invade “Lower California”
1856-1857 William Walker tried to invade Nicaragua